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United Nations | 25Sep2013 | Mikheil Saakashvili [31:22]
(courtesy Myron Petriw)
Mikheil Saakashvili at the UN General Assembly, 25 September 2013[W.Z.
The President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili, emphasizes that
throughout its history -- as the Tsarist Russian Empire, the Bolshevik
Russian Empire, the Russian Federation and the proposed Eurasian Union
-- Russian Empire rulers in the Kremlin/Moscow have always deliberately
fomented instability, division, hatred and wars amongst the peoples in
its occupied territories (and in neighbouring countries) so as to
preclude the development of stable democratic nation states, which
could/would develop friendly relations amongst themselves. From the
Ukrainian perspective, this is exactly the policy Vladimir Putin is
implementing in Ukraine at the present time.]
Mr. President, Your Excellencies, Distinguished Delegates,
It is a great honor to represent again my beloved nation at this
During the past decade, as I had the privilege to address this hall,
Georgia has moved from a failed state to a market democracy.
We have experienced both advances and setbacks, both breakthroughs and
mistakes. But the world has been able to witness the constant
commitment to freedom of the Georgian people.
I ask you today to once more hear the voice of a nation that transcends
political, social, and religious differences in a common love for
A voice that -- despite all the problems we have encountered and the
challenges we still have to overcome -- is full of hope.
And, looking at our world today, I do think that this voice of hope is
The optimism of the early 1990s -- when the spread of liberal and
democratic values seemed natural -- when the End of History had been
proclaimed -- and when the United Nations was set to become the heart
and the soul of a world finally at peace -- this optimism of the 1990s
has been crushed by a wave of pessimism and cynicism.
The world is not at peace. Humankind has not reconciled with itself.
And the UN did not become the soul or the heart of a united globe.
Western civilization, once triumphant, is now trying to tackle a deep
economic, social, and mental crisis.
In Eastern Europe, the colored revolutions are challenged by the forces
they had defeated a few years ago.
In the Middle East, the glorious images of the cheering crowds of Cairo
and Tunis have been replaced by the horrendous videos of the gassed
children of Damascus.
There are many good reasons to be disillusioned.
But should the dogmatic optimism of the 90s be replaced by an equally
dogmatic pessimism -- by a sense of resignation that suffocates hope?
Should the fact that the expansion of democracy and freedom turns out
to require profound struggle -- should this lead us to renounce our
beliefs and our principles?
I came here today to share the hopes of my nation, and to speak out
against this ambient fatalism.
I came here to address those who doubt, those who hesitate, those who
are tempted to give in.
If the West is outdated, then why do millions of Poles, Czech,
Estonians, Romanians, and others cherish so much the day they entered
NATO? And why are millions of Ukrainians, Georgians, Moldovans, and
others desperately knocking on the doors of the European Union?
If freedom is no longer fashionable, how do we explain that the suicide
of an unknown citizen in a remote Tunisian town has changed the map of
History did not come to an end in 1989 or 1991 and it never will.
But freedom is still its motor and its horizon.
Everywhere, men and women who want to live in freedom are confronted by
the forces of tyranny.
The question is: are we going to be actors or spectators in this
Distinguished delegates, Ladies and gentlemen.
As I speak, the Eastern European countries aspiring to join the
European family of free and democratic nations are facing constant
pressures and threats.
Armenia has been cornered, and forced to sign customs union which is
not in this nation’s interest or in the interest of our region. Moldova
is being blockaded, Ukraine is under attack, Azerbaijan faces
extraordinary pressure, and Georgia is occupied…
Because an old Empire is trying to reclaim its bygone borders. And
“borders” is actually not the right word, since this Empire -- be it
the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation, or the
Eurasian Union -- never had borders. It only had margins.
I came today to speak in the name of these margins.
Unlike most nations, the Russian Federation has no interest in having
stable states around it.
Neighboring countries in constant turmoil is what the Kremlin is
It rejects the very idea of strong governments in Georgia, Ukraine, or
Moldova, even ones that try to be friendly to its interests.
I was never a great fan of what the French call “La langue de bois”,
but as my second term nears its end, I feel more than before the urge
to speak my mind.
So let us be concrete.
Do you think that Vladimir Putin wants Armenia to decisively triumph
over Azerbaijan, for instance? No. This would make Armenia too strong
and potentially too independent.
Do you think then that the contrary is true, that Moscow wants Baku to
prevail over Erevan? Obviously not. The current rise of a modernized
Azerbaijan is a nightmare for the Russian leaders.
No, they do not want anyone to prevail and the conflict itself is their
objective, since it keeps both nations dependent and blocks their
integration into the European common space.
Do you think that the electoral defeat of the forces that led the
Orange Revolution in Ukraine has led the Kremlin to take a softer
approach to this country?
To the contrary. The government led by Viktor Yanoukovich is under
permanent attack, a commercial war has been launched against Ukraine
ahead of the European Summit of Vilnius and Russian officials now speak
openly about dismembering this nation.
Do you think the Kremlin would agree to discuss the de-occupation of
Abkhazia and South Ossetia, now that the government has changed in
Tbilisi? Far from it! The annexation of Georgian lands by Russian
Yesterday, the occupants have again expelled Georgian citizens from
their homes and villages, the homes and villages of their parents and
grand-parents. In daylight and in total impunity.
Despite the friendly statements made by the new Georgian government in
the recent weeks and months, the Russian military keeps advancing its
positions, dividing communities with new barbwires, threatening our
economy, moving towards the vital Baku-Supsa pipeline, approaching more
and more the main highway of Georgia and thus putting into question the
very sustainability of our country.
We are one of very few nations of history, and I’m very proud of it,
that stand unfortunately, full-blown Russian attack. And we are the
only one from many centuries whose statehood and independence has
survived. Despite full-blown attack by more than hundred thousand
strong Russian army, despite bombing by two hundred planes, attacked by
full Russian black sea fleet and tens of thousands of mercenary. Our
statehood and independence has survived against of all these things.
But let us not risk losing now in times of peace. We survived because
we were united; we survived because the World was with us. I hope the
World will stay with us when this pressure is applied to us.
I came here in the name of Georgian people to ask EU international
community to react strongly to this aggression. And to help us to put
end to the Russian annexation of our lands.
The hostility of Vladimir Putin and his team towards the government I
had the privilege to lead for almost a decade was not based on personal
hatreds or cultural misunderstandings. Any such interpretation was just
My predecessor, President Shevarnadze, came from the highest Soviet
nomenklatura. He was returned to power in Georgia with direct Russian
help in the 90s, through a military coup. He was well known for his
Soviet diplomatic skills unlike me. And yet, Russia has constantly
undermined his authority and even tried to assassinate him several
This is not about Gamsakourdia, Shevarnadze, Saakashvili, or Ivanishvili
Those names actually do not matter when the stakes are so high.
This is about the possibility -- or not -- of true statehood in
Georgia, and beyond.
Because the current Russian authorities know perfectly well that -- as
soon as strong institutions are built in Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, or
any other place -- as soon as functioning states emerge -- such
institutions, such states will reflect and enforce the will of their
people, which is to become fully independent and move towards Europe.
The Georgian experience of successful reforms and the creation of a
functioning state was therefore considered to be a virus -- a virus
that could and would contaminate the whole post-Soviet region -- we
became the least corrupt country in Europe, the world’s number one
reformer according to the World Bank, one of the top places to do
business, the least criminalized country in Europe, after being one of
the most criminalized one -- and that was the virus that should be
eliminated, by every means possible.
This is why the Georgian nation has suffered an embargo, a war, an
invasion, and an occupation -- all since 2006.
But this also is why the resistance of the Georgian people and the
resilience of the Georgian democracy are of the outmost importance for
the entire region.
Ladies and gentlemen,
The efforts to roll back the advances of the EU and NATO in our region
-- progress based on the will of our people -- are becoming ever more
These efforts have a name: the Eurasian Union.
It makes me sick when KGB agent Vladimir Putin lectures the World about
freedom values and democracy. This is least of the things he can do to
the world being dictatorial leader of one of the last empires left. But
this new project is much more dangerous than his lectures.
The Eurasian Union has been shaped as an alternative to the European
Union and unveiled by Vladimir Putin as the main project of his new
Because European and Euro-Atlantic integration take a lot of time and
require tremendous efforts -- because there are moments when you might
think you are pursuing a mirage -- because the threats become so
strong, the pressures so direct, while the promises seem so far away --
some people in our region might fall victim to fatigue and ask
themselves: why not?
Today, I want precisely to explore this “why not?”
Much more than with a choice of foreign policy or of international
alliances, our nations are confronted with a choice of society, a
choice of life.
Our people have to decide whether they accept to live in a world of
fear and crime -- a world in which differences are perceived as threats
and minorities as punching bags a world in which opponents are facing
selective justice or beatings a world, Ladies and gentlemen, that we
all know very well in our region since this is the world from which we
The Eurasian Union is both our recent past and the future shaped for us
by some ex-KGB officers in Moscow.
On the opposite side, our revived traditions and our centuries old
aspirations lead us towards another world called Europe.
European societies are far from perfect and there too, you can have
fears, doubts, angers, hatreds even.
But there, meritocracy prevails over nepotism, tolerance is a fundament
of public life, current opponents are the future ministers and not the
prisoners to be or the enemies to beat.
The choice -- when it is put like that -- is so obvious for the people
of Eastern Europe that some Kremlin strategists (they call themselves
politechnologists) have decided to cancel the truth and have shaped
lies that they are spreading throughout Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova and
many other places.
Their mouthpieces in our respective countries -- this conscious or
unconscious 5th column -- identify the European Union with the
destruction of family values, the erosion of national traditions and
the promotion of gays and lesbians.
Strangely, in recent years and even more in recent months, we hear in
Tbilisi, Kiev, or Chisinau the same ugly music that was first
orchestrated in Moscow -- we hear that our traditions are collapsing
under the influence of the West, that Christian holidays will be
replaced by gay pride events, and Churches by multicultural Disney
Lands -- we hear that our orthodox identity is under threat…
And after all -- here we come -- we hear that we share with our former
masters a common respect for decency and traditions.
Are we so na´ve to believe these lies, as other generations did,
allowing our sovereignty to be kidnapped?
Are we so unfair to our ancestors to think that their memory would be
honored by attacks on mosques or some pogroms?
Are we so unaware of our own History that we allow it to repeat itself
When we hear the fake music of the orthodox brotherhood sung by Russian
imperialists, can’t we hear the true voice of the Patriarch Kirion who
was assassinated or the eternal voice of the Patriarch Ambrosi Khelaya
who was tortured during days and weeks only because he appealed to the
Geneva Conference against the invasion of his country?
And he told his Russian interrogators, you can have my body but you
will never have my soul.
Are we so deaf as not to hear the voices of the killed bishops and
priests? Are we so uneducated that we do not recall who has repainted
our churches and erased our sacred frescos? Are we so blind today not
to see the destruction of our churches in the occupied territories?
We need to know our History. And our History teaches us that tolerance
is the basis for sovereignty in our region. It is not only a moral
duty: it is an issue of national security.
We need to know our History and understand that the same old
imperialistic principle -- divide to rule -- is applied today as it was
two centuries ago.
Looking at our region today, those who have some knowledge of the
Caucasian history might remember the Armenian - Azerbaijani bloodshed
of 1905, directly created by the tsarist administration, and compare it
to the beginning of the conflict in the Karabach in the late 1980s.
The Russian army was presented in large numbers and in front of its
eyes the war started and they were pretending to help both sides in
facts to deepen the conflict.
They might recall -- as I do too well -- the beginning of the war in
Abkhazia in the early 1990s, when Georgian paramilitary groups were
getting their weapons from the same Russian troops who were actually
leading the Abkhaz militia and bringing in Chechen mercenaries in order
to kill any form of solidarity between nations of the North and the
Just as they were sending -- for the same reason -- more than one
century before -- Georgian officers at the forefront of their wars
against Chechens, Ingush or Daghestani.
We could also look at other margins throughout the times, we could look
at Poland or Ukraine, and we would see the same pictures. Everywhere,
the Empire has always inflamed the relations between subjugated people
and separated them by a wall of fanatical antagonism.
It used to work, unfortunately. But what is even more unfortunate is
that it is still working today.
Ladies and gentlemen,
The European Union -- the greatest political success of recent decades
-- has been built on three pillars, which also could be characterized
as three rejections: the rejection of the extreme nationalism that had
led Europe to the collective suicide of two world wars and the horrors
of Nazism -- the rejection of communism that was threatening to spread
throughout the continent -- and, in the end, the rejection of
colonialism and imperialism.
It took time for the French and British Empires to accept this third
rejection, but giving up their colonies was the price to pay for the
modernization of their economy and the development of their democracy,
and also for the European unification to actually be realized.
The Eurasian Union is based on the exact opposite premises.
It is fuelled by intolerance, it is led by old KGB structures and it is
shaped to revive an old Empire.
Of course, joining the Eurasian Union is therefore very easy. There are
no social, economic, or political criteria to be met: becoming a
colony, in fact, requires no effort at all. Passivity and mediocrity
are the only requirements.
On the other hand, to get into a real Union, there is no alternative to
making a Herculean effort and meeting exact criteria -- because such
principles are precisely what create the Union.
So, to those who doubt, I tell that it is precisely because the EU
demands effort and imposes criteria -- it is precisely because it does
not seek to absorb us (while the other one is dreaming about it) --
that the choice should be obvious.
But there is an even better reason for saying that the choice is
The choice is obvious because the Russian project is doomed to fail.
No Empire is sustainable today, and certainly not the Russian one.
If we look at History, France and UK have lost their colonies not only
because these colonies fought for their independence, but also because
people in Paris and London ultimately did not believe anymore in their
Exactly the same is happening in Russia nowadays.
The imperial dream is being rejected first at its margins as we have
But, most crucially perhaps, the idea of the Empire is rejected at its
Such a rejection does not manifest itself only in public protests or in
the rising polls of the opposition in the main cities of Russia.
It expresses itself in the universal cynicism of Russian elites towards
Putin’s eurasian vision.
The very people who are supposed to serve it do not believe in the
viability of this project.
Rejected at its margins, rejected at its center, the imperialistic path
will come to a dead end, the Eurasian Union will fail and Russia will
-- after all -- become a nation state with borders instead of margins.
Then, it will start to seek stable relations with stable neighbors.
Then, cooperation will replace confrontation.
It will happen, and much sooner than people think, to the benefit of
the margins, but most of all to the benefit of the Russian people
It will happen because the imperial project is absurd for a generation
of Russian citizens who are among the most enthusiastic users of
Internet in the world.
It will happen because ethnic discrimination Russia is using inside its
territory is not going to consolidate and make Russia more strong and
as a united state.
It will happen because the endless resources provided by the revenues
of oil and gas are challenged by the perspectives offered by the
exploitation of shale gas and shale oil.
It will happen because gas alone does not replace economic
It will happen because of the corruption and the absence of justice.
It will happen because entire regions have been alienated by
discriminations and violence, because the people of Chechnya,
Ingushettia, Daghestan, Tatarstan and many other places have been so
much persecuted that they do not feel part of any common project with
It will happen because frustrations, angers, hatreds are too strong and
the unifying ideal too absent.
It will happen. Not in the coming decades, but in the coming years.
Few years from now, Vladimir Putin will have left the Kremlin and
vanished from the Russian politics even if he says that he will be for
another twenty years.
Russian citizens will remember him as a ghost from the old times, the
times of the Empire -- the times of corruption and oppression.
Nobody knows whether this process will be calm or violent, whether his
successor will be nationalistic or liberal, or both together, but what
matters is something else: Russian will no longer be an Empire, it will
become finally a normal nation state.
This is the horizon we should prepare for, all together.
Meanwhile, as our region will remain an area of confrontation, the
formerly captive nations should unite their strengths instead of
cultivating their divisions.
Some leaders, some countries in the past had understood that the
freedom of one was depending on the freedom of all subjugated nations,
like the Poland of Pilsudski that was inviting all the oppressed people
to unite under the flag of polish independence.
But never had our ancesters benefited from a vast and powerful enough
force that had understood its strategic interest was to preserve the
sovereignty of each of our nations. Today, this force exists: it is the
As we come closer to the Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit, I would
like to reiterate a call that I have made several times in the recent
By launching the Eastern Partnership, as a response to the 2008
invasion of Georgia, the EU has offered to our nations a platform to
cooperate under its benevolent umbrella. We should invest much more in
it. We should develop common projects, first and foremost focusing on
the necessary reforms that we should carry on together.
Because reforms mean -- for all of us -- statehood and independence.
Catherine the 2nd knew it well and -- when Poland started to implement
successfully an ambitious program of reforms following the precepts of
the French or British Enlightment -- she wrote a long and secret letter
to Friedrich the Great.
This letter was and remains one of the most impressive expressions of
the nature and the strategy of the imperialistic project.
It reads that ongoing reforms are dangerous both for Russia and Prussia
because they will turn Poland into an true State, that they need to be
stopped and that Poland should be attacked and dismembered before they
are fully implemented.
This letter will not sound unfamiliar to those who know how much
Vladimir Putin was loathing the Georgian experience throughout this
Because lots of Russians were asking if this once corrupt Georgia,
criminalized country, disintegrated failed state could make it why
Russians cannot make it. This was an ideologically dangerous project.
For the first time, an efficient nation State was being built in the
Caucasus and the reforms had to be crushed before they would bear all
Ladies and gentlemen,
Unity should be our rule in Eastern Europe, including in the divided
I have spoken about the beginnings of the war in Abkhazia, I could have
recalled an older scene that is very symbolic of the History of the
At the end of the rebellion lead by Shamyl against the Russian Empire,
after Shamyl had surrendered himself, the last Chechen leader still
fighting -- named Baysongour -- had been wounded and captured.
As they were going to hang him, the Russian officers gathered a crowd
of Daghestani men to witness the execution. They ordered one of them to
remove the chair on which Baysongour was standing in order kill him.
By doing so, they wanted to fuel the local vendettas and oppose the
Seeing this, Baysongour moved the chair himself, committing a forbidden
suicide and preserving the relations between neighbors.
But for one failure, how many successes this strategy has encountered
among the Caucasian nations?
It needs to come to an end. And this is why I have launched several
projects during my Presidency reinforcing the people-to-people contacts
between North and South Caucasus, projects focusing mostly on education
and on University exchanges.
That’s why Georgian Parliament has recognized genocide of Circassian
people one of the most unknown and tragic pages of the history of the
world when the whole nation was wiped out because their land was needed
by the Russian Empire.
We need to build on those small efforts.
We need to prepare for the times when the Empire collapses. So that its
legacy of hatreds is swiftly overcome.
And we, as citizens of Georgia, need to prepare for the times when
Russian troops will leave our occupied regions, when Moscow will
withdraw from Tskhinvali and Sukhumi.
We need to prepare ourselves to welcome back our Ossetian and Abkhaz
fellow citizens as brothers and sisters, and not as enemies.
Because these times will come sooner than we think.
Ladies and gentlemen,
As my second term nears its end, I take pride in the many
accomplishments that Georgia achieved during my tenure in office.
We took Georgia literally out of darkness, brought unprecedented
transparency into our public service, put our children back to schools
and took the gangs out of them. We have brought our nation closer than
ever to its European dream and worked tirelessly to renew the spirit of
tolerance that guided Georgia in our glorious past.
We did many good things. But I realize that some of these things were
done at a very high cost. In our rush to impose a new reality, against
the background of internal and external threats, we have cut corners
and made mistakes.
We went sometimes too far and other times not far enough.
I acknowledge fully my responsibility in all these shortcomings and I
sincerely care for all those who have felt that they did not benefit
enough from our work -- or even that they were victims of our radical
I want to tell to all Georgian citizens -- to those who supported our
project, our policies and our party and to those who rejected them -- I
want to tell them how proud I am of their maturity and their bravery,
how humble I feel looking at the sacrifices and the efforts they have
made. We have promised to complete this project, we never mentioned
that the process of implementation would be an easy one.
We are and should remain a nation united in a common love for freedom
We are and should remain a nation united in the deepest respect for the
sacrifices made by our soldiers in Afghanistan, a nation sharing the
same sorrow when they lose their lives and taking the same pride in
We are the nation that are proud of our soldiers that stood up to
hundred times exceeded of Russian invaders and gave us time to gather
and to mobilize to protect and save our independence -- something that
many other countries couldn’t do during 20 century, much bigger and
much powerful than us.
We are and should remain a nation united in our historical destiny to
join the European family of democratic nations, the family we should
never have been separated from, our family.
The path of the Georgian people towards freedom, regional unity and
European integration is far from over and I will continue to dedicate
every day of my life to its success, as a proud citizen of a proud