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  • Tolstoy - Witness for defendant re forced repatriation, Vlasov Army

    Witness for defendant in transcripts10.html

    (Jerusalem, Feb. 16, 1987 - Apr. 24, 1988)
    SUMMARY of English-language TRANSCRIPTS

    Nikolai Tolstoy; T008904 - 9448; 1987/11/02 - 05; Vol. 15
    [1987/11/02, Mon.; T008904, Vol. 15; Tolstoy]
    [Top] [1987/11/02] [1987/11/03] [1987/11/04] [1987/11/05] [Bottom]

    T008904f - Nikolai Dimitich Tolstoy Meloslavsky
    - born in England in 1935, Wellington College, Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, Trinity College Dublin MA in Modern History and Political Theory
    - author and historian
    - books: The Night of the Long Knives, Victims of Yalta, Stalin's Secret War, The Tolstoys, The Quest for Merlin, The Minister and the Massacres, + articles and periodicals
    - [Trial and Error pamphlet for Deschenes Commission]

    T008910 - Nun/75 = New York Times, Dec. 7, 1978 review of Victims of Yalta
    T008911 - Nun/76 = Sunday Telegraph, Rebecca West review of Victims of Yalta
    T008911 - Nun/77 = Sunday Times, John Erikson review of Stalin's Secret War
    T008912 - Nun/78 = Oxford Mail, Feb. 9, 1978, Lionel Cockrun review of Victims of Yalta
    T008913 - Forced repatriation in 1945 was a "great blemish" on Harold MacMillan
    T008915 - Tolstoy is honorary president of Association for a Free Russia;
    - member of Royal Society of Literature

    T008917 - Yalta Agreement, Feb. 11, 1945, between Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin was formal basis for repatriation, although use of force was previously decided in British cabinet meeting in September 1944, and confirmed to Soviets in October 1944.

    T009818 - Tolstoy: "In fact, the question of displaced persons is nowhere mentioned in the negotiations. And was entirely secondary. The question at issue was that of the repatriation of prisoners-of-war."
    - [W.Z. In my opinion, forced repatriation was one of the great crimes against humanity in WWII.]

    T008919 - Total number of Soviet citizens repatriated = 2,272,000, but there is no breakdown as to POW vs DP, although POWs were definitely in the minority, and forced labourers and refugees in the majority.
    - [Later on Tolstoy states that the majority of those repatriated were unwilling returnees.]

    T008920 - The Scotsman, March 2, 1946: "Despite of every sort of persuasion and enticement, Soviet officials in London have privately admitted that 40% of Soviet subjects in Western Europe refuse to be repatriated.
    - [In the final analysis, some half million were not repatriated and managed to stay in the West.]

    T008922 - In December 1945, there were only 9190 Western Ukrainians (Polish citizens registered). By June 1947, there were 106,549 Western Ukrainians registered, implying that a great many Eastern Ukrainians had falsified their returns.

    T008924 - Nun/79 = Jan. 1946, Dachau, photograph of coffins of Vlasov troops who committed suicide.
    T008925 - Nun/80 = more photos of suicide incident in nun/79
    - Nun/81 - Nun/81 = photo of American troops cleaning up debris after suicide incident.
    - Meisel said that only 250,000 were forcibly repatriated and 5.3 million went back willingly.
    - [2,272,000 by British and Americans, the rest from the Soviet occupied zone.]

    T008932-3 - MISSING
    T008935 - Tolstoy interviewed many Allied officers "who gave either loose or precise tips or instructions to Soviet citizens to conceal their Soviet citizenship."

    T008936 - MISSING
    T008938 - "... Major Hill managed to extract very large numbers of people whom he knew to be Soviet citizens and whom he advised to falsify their returns."

    T008939 - Galicia Division in Rimini, Italy, Captain Garange(?) resisted British Foreign Office directives to comply with Soviet demands ... "... in fact, the policy was not to cooperate with Foreign Office instructions and to conceal the Soviet citizenship of the very high percentage that was in fact Soviet citizens."

    T008941 - Operation East Wind in May 1947 was the last actual [major] forced repatriation, "but this was not the end of forced repatriation".

    T008943 - MISSING
    T008944f - The United States "never officially announced the end of the policy" of repatriation.
    - On June 23, 1948, repatriation policy was debated in the British House of Lords, was criticized, but was never officially terminated.
    - Soviet repatriation mission was withdrawn from Frankfurt in 1949, but the Soviets still tried to blackmail the Italian government in 1950.

    T008950 - Repatriation concerns of Soviet POWs in Egypt were raised as early as the summer of 1944 to Lord Selbourne, Minister of Economic Warfare.

    T008951 - MISSING
    T008952 - Tolstoy: "The United States Army indeed had to issue orders to shoot to kill people should they show resistance to repatriation."

    T008953-55 - MISSING
    T008957-61 - MISSING
    T008964 - Only a minority of Vlasov men who were repatriated were massacred, the majority were sent to the Gulags where most perished.

    T008966 - MISSING
    T008971f - When John Demjanjuk filled out tav/32 on March 3(?), 1948, the fear of repatriation was rampant and continued to be rampant until Soviet repatriation commission in Frankfurt left in [June] 1949.

    T008972f - Tolstoy recounts a very positive account of General Andrei Vlasov. Germans used Vlasov mostly for propaganda purposes and only at the end of 1944 was he given any leeway to form the Russian Liberation Army [ROA].

    T008974 - MISSING
    T008975 -Tolstoy confirms that although Vlasov's Army was officially founded in November [December?] 1944, as early as 1943 hundreds of thousands of former Soviet soldiers serving the German Wehrmacht were using ROA insignia.

    T008976 - Nun/82 = Aug. 3, 1943 photo of "Freiwilliger" major wearing ROA emblem.
    T008977 - Nun/83 = June 1943 photo of General Malushkin wearing ROA badge.
    T008978 - Nun/84 = 1943 photo of General Giliankoff wearing ROA badge.
    - In May 1943, Hitler declared himself resolutely against [formation of ROA].

    T008979 - MISSING
    T008981 - Tolstoy: "..., it is perfectly plausible that soldiers wearing the ROA badge should have been seen at almost anywhere throughout the occupied Europe in 1943 or 1944."

    T008982f - Although Tolstoy has no direct evidence, "it seems perfectly possible, indeed likely, that there were some" ROA personnel in Heuberg in 1944.

    T008985-6 - MISSING
    T008988f - Zikoff (originally Moshevitz, of Jewish origin)
    T008989 - SD [Sicherheitdienst] complained via Captain von Hervardt (who himself was partly Jewish), that Zikoff was suppressing anti-Semitic material.

    T008991 - According to Hervardt (who became West German ambassador in London), Zikoff was assassinated by SD in 1943.
    - Zikoff was member of the Communist party and a Commissar.

    T008992f - Examples of Jews serving in German-controlled units.
    T008995 - Tolstoy: "The overwhelming majority of Jews certainly would have been liquidated."
    T009000 - execution of circumcised Moslems mistaken for Jews.
    T009004 - Many examples of Soviets forbidding their soldiers from surrendering under penalty of death. Great fear among POWs because of it.

    T009005 - Nun/85 = Dec. 13, 1944 CIA [OSS?] report (p.20) of interrogation of Russian POWs.
    T009007 - Virtually all POWs, DPs and Ostarbeiters returning to the Soviet Union ended up in the Gulags.

    T009009 - Knowledge of their fate as POWs back in Soviet Union "aroused universal terror around the camps".

    T009009f - Question of validity of tav/143 and tav/145 (train movements from Crimea to Chelm after battle of Kerch in May 1942) and tav/203 (movement of prisoners from Chelm). There were many specific exceptions to general occurrences.

    T009016f - Discussion of Galician Division
    - In addition to Galician Division, large numbers of Ukrainians were being recruited for Waffen SS divisions and dispatched all over the Reich.

    T009020 - In the spring of 1944, there were major disagreements amongst Hitler, Himmler, the Wehrmacht and Rosenberg as to the policy towards the ethnic groups in the East.

    T009021 - It is "perfectly conceivable that individual bodies of Ukrainians had been diverted to the Vlasov Army", rather than to the Galician Division.

    T009022f - Many Soviet citizens initially looked upon the Germans as deliverers.
    T009024 - Large proportion of Red Army simply laid down their arms and did not fight, although a large number of units defected willingly to the German Army.

    T009026 - MISSING
    T009027 - Tolstoy refers to testimony of Dr. Krakowsky re treason of Vlasov or Galician Division soldiers: "An absurd view and particularly inappropriate coming from a witness who, himself, willingly served in a quisling government or regime equally oppressive with the Nazis."

    T009032f - Sheftel returns to subject of Katyn Forest Massacre, but gets nowhere with Levin.
    T009041 - Sheftel next turns to the subject of the 1933 Ukrainian Famine.
    T009042 - Stalin gave Churchill a figure of 10 million, NKVD [formerly KGB] Chief Balitsky gave figure between 8 to 9 million.

    T009043f - Sheftel questions Tolstoy about Trawniki ID card, tav/149.
    T009044 - Tolstoy: "... very extensive and the extremely well documented record of forgeries perpetrated by the Soviet security forces, I have a very extensive dossier with me."

    T009047 - Levin: "... any country, which looks after its own security, will go in for forgeries of one kind or another."

    T009050 - Sheftel has Tolstoy examine tav/222, 223, 224 (Juchnowskij, Wolembachow, Bondarenko)
    - M.G.B. SSSR

    T009053 - Nun/86 = pp. 92-103 of book "Soviet Espionage" by David Dalin.

    Nikolai Tolstoy; T009055 - 9189; 1987/11/03; Vol. 15
    [1987/11/03, Tue.; T009055, Vol. 15; Tolstoy]
    [Top] [1987/11/02] [1987/11/03] [1987/11/04] [1987/11/05] [Bottom]

    T09056 - Tolstoy: David Dalin in nun/86 "shows on well-documented basis and in great detail the activities of the Comintern forgery operators in Germany before the Nazi rise to power in the '20s and '30s."

    T009059 - Nun/87 = pp. 72-75 of Memoirs of Walter Kravitsky.
    - Walter Kravitsky, head of the Soviet Military Intelligence network, defected just before Nazi-Soviet Pact, subsequently murdered in New York.

    T009060f - re tav/149
    T009069 - Dorner: "Is it possible to discover that a document is a forgery on the basis of historical knowledge?"

    T009070f - Tolstoy suggests that signature of Streibel and the Lublin-Trawniki stamp on tav/149 does not indicate that it is authentic.

    T009074 - The presence of the Teufel signature "seems to me of minimal value".
    T009075 - Sheftel points out that Teufel's rank seems to have decreased between his signing tav/223 = Walembachow = #1211 and tav/149 = Demjanjuk = #1393. Tolstoy cannot conclusively say that this indicates forgery.

    T009077 - Sheftel: "and we know that the name Engeber [???] appears on the document so that the KGB has access to it."
    - [W.Z. I don't know what Sheftel is talking about.]

    T009078 - MISSING
    T009080 - In response to Sheftel pointing out that no one knows the history of tav/149 [i.e. no chain of custody], Tolstoy states that no historian would make definitive conclusions about a document without knowing its history.

    T009085 - Nun/88 = Mrs. Otto Kwsinen memoirs re the Zinoviev letter forgery of 1924.
    T009091 - Tolstoy points out that it is much easier to disprove the authenticity of the Hitler Diaries compared to tav/149.
    - Tolstoy mentions Armand Hammer, Blatman objects and Levin supports Blatman.

    T009092f - Levin: "We will uphold our previous decision, there will be no hearing against Hammer in this courtroom."

    T009096 - Rudenko (deceased in 1981) was the Procurator General of the Soviet Union and a state prosecutor under Vishinsky during the Stalinist purge trials of the 1930s.
    - [ W.Z. Yoram Sheftel's father knew Rudenko personally before he emigrated to Palestine in 1923.]

    T009098 - Concerning the Stalinist show trials of the 1930s, Khrushchev wrote that Rudenko confessed: " That from the standpoint of judicial norms, there was no evidence whatsoever for condemning or even trying those men. The case for prosecuting them had been based on personal confessions beaten out of them under physical and psychological torture."

    T009099 - Tolstoy: "In 1945, Rudenko was responsible for interrogating the 16 Polish resistance leaders abducted to the Lubyanka jail by the NKVD."

    T009100f - Rudenko "immediately after this traveled to prosecute Nazi war criminals at the Nurnberg Tribunals" where he attempted "to indict some of the German leadership for the crime of the Katyn massacre."

    T009101 - Tolstoy: "From this it can be seen that Rudenko specialized in the prosecution of people known to be innocent, and in particular the use of forged documents for that purpose."
    - "... it was Rudenko, who subsequently would become Procurator General of the USSR, who in 1980 was approached by Alan Ryan of the OSI for requesting for the card under investigation." ... "Rudenko's office supplied the card to the United States."
    - [The Ryan - Rockler - Rudenko meeting is described in Alan Ryan's book "Quiet Neighbors".]

    T009103 - Tolstoy: "So in broad conclusion, I can say that virtually everything, indeed everything, that we know of the providence of this document would excite the gravest suspicion I would have thought in any fair-minded or competent historian's mind."

    T009111 - Levin does not allow Tolstoy to testify about forgetfulness of people he interviewed concerning WWII.

    T009112 - Tolstoy gives two examples of Osttruppen being assigned helter-skelter towards the end of the war.

    T009116 - Tolstoy about Demjanjuk testimony: "My impression is, having read what I think is part of the relevant transcript, and having then considered the historical events, and in the light of minor inconsistencies of memory there might be, his account is fully consistent with historical events as they are named [known?] to me."

    T009120f - Blatman cross-examination of Tolstoy.
    T009122 - MISSING
    T009128 - MISSING
    T009133 - Quotes from pp. 361 and 366, "Minister and the Massacres" concerning possibilities of Western Allies using 2-3 million of DPs and POWs against Soviet Union.

    T009134 - Levin: Wasn't this the secret desire of these people -- to overthrow the Stalinist regime?
    - Tolstoy: Yes, but "it was entirely delusionment."

    T009137f - Blatman questions Tolstoy about the Trial and Error pamphlet which he submitted to the Deschenes Commission in 1985 or 1986.

    T009140 - Blatman: "... you are equating German war criminals with Soviet war criminals."
    T009143 - Tolstoy: "... I am glad to say that, in fact, the Canadian Government ultimately adopted more or less precisely, not on my account, but did in fact adopt the recommendations I put forward."

    T009144 - Blatman reads into record from Trial and Error: "It may be argued that the naivete and ignorance of both Mr. Littman and the Commission are so evident as to be self-defeating."
    - Tolstoy: "Yes, I think it is possible that even judges may not be infallible in this world."
    - Blatman quotes from Tolstoy letter to Jewish Chronicle, July 24, 1987.

    T009145 - Tolstoy: "... I believe that collective hatred based on race, or religion, or past history or whatever, are certainly harmful and, I think, should be astuted by all civilized people, yes, that is my view."

    T009146 - Blatman refers to Douglas David Winner article in Jewish Chronicle concerning documents from the Soviet Union.

    T009147f - Blatman attempts to downplay Tolstoy's books on Merlin Legend, Biography, Night of the Long Knives.

    T009152 - "Victims of Yalta" was commissioned by Hodrins Stauton before either Bethel's or Epstein's books had appeared. It was also published in the U.S. by Scribner under the name "The Secret Betrayal".

    T009156 - Tav/159(?) = Slavic Review, Vol. 38, 1979, Alan Milward critique of Secret Betrayal.
    T009158 - Tav/256 = International Affairs, Vol. 58, 1982, P.M.H. Bell critique of Stalin's Secret War.
    T009160 - Tav/257 = Times Literary Supplement, June 13, 1986, Robert Knight critique of Minister and the Massacres.
    - Knight is getting a pension from Communist Yugoslav government.

    T009162f - Discussion as to how many people were killed by British repatriation action (p.266, Minister and the Massacres) at camp Begitz(?) near Lienz, which varies from 12 in the report of the 36th Infantry Brigade to 700 by Olga Rotova.

    T009173f - criticism of Robert Conquest's of 14.5 million dead during 1932-33 Famine.
    T009179 - Tav/258 = Richard Landwer's book Fighting for Freedom (on Halychyna Division).
    T009183f - Discussion of Tolstoy's Ph.D. attempt (which he abandoned).

    Nikolai Tolstoy; T009190 - 9327; 1987/11/04; Vol. 15
    [1987/11/04, Wed.; T009190, Vol. 15; Tolstoy]
    [Top] [1987/11/02] [1987/11/03] [1987/11/04] [1987/11/05] [Bottom]

    T009190 - MISSING
    T009191f - Gill makes a long presentation protesting Blatman's personal attacks on Nikolai Tolstoy (completely contrary to what was allowed for prosecution witnesses).

    T009193 - Levin dismisses Gill's appeal.
    T009195 - Tolstoy refuses to participate unless assured of normal treatment.
    T009196 - Five minute break; Levin tries to continue, but ...
    T009199 - Tolstoy: "Your Honor, in view of the nature of yesterday afternoon's proceedings, in the absence of any assurance that I would receive any sort of fair play in this court as I understand it, according to Western traditions of justice, I am afraid I am unable to participate further."

    T009204 - Levin declares 20 minute recess.
    T009205 - Gill talked to Blatman, who "indicated that he had no intention of getting into the character situation".

    T009206f - Blatman questions Tolstoy about Galicia Division, Battle of Brody where only 3 to 4 thousand out of 12 thousand survived.

    T009214f - Discussion of Captain Drujaken [Grushakin] of Cossack Army.
    T009219 - Shandruk, director of a movie theatre in Poland, was made commander of Galician Division.

    T009221f - Discussion of Prof. Vadim Petrov at Columbia University, his memoirs of Kolyma concentration camp and WWII.

    T009234f - Tav/259 = Ch.15, Return from Russia, by Vladimir Petrov (1950)
    - Blatman claims that Petrov's description of recruiting office in Odesa is not analogous to Demjanjuk in Graz.

    T009241 - George Woodridge, chief historian of UNRRA, wrote a book in which he states most of 6 million DPs were eager to be repatriated.

    T009248 - Tav/260 = p.211 of Malcolm Proudfoot's book.
    - indicating 2,034,000 DPs from Soviet Union were repatriated by Sept. 1945.

    T009251 - Blatman: Of the Zonda Air Battalion in Liechtenstein 60% wanted to be repatriated and 40% refused.
    - [W.Z. It is incorrect to say that they "wanted to be repatriated". It would be more correct to say they were "coerced or blackmailed into being repatriated by the Soviet Repatriation Commissions and the British and American authorities".]

    T009255f - Last major forced repatriation from American zone was Platling in May 1946.
    - [W.Z. Lubomyr Luciuk in "Searching for Place" (2000) refers to Bohdan Panchuk papers stating that there were cases of individuals being forcibly abducted by Soviet agents with the connivance of British and/or American officers.]

    T009259 - British Field Marshal Montgomery unilaterally forbid forced repatriation, but after his departure the policy was resumed.

    T009264 - Book on repatriation in U.S. by Mark Elliot, Pawns of Yalta.
    T009266 - Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946, "An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent".
    T009267 - Truman Doctrine proclaimed March 12, 1947.
    - Marshall Plan declared June 5, 1947.

    T009268 - Berlin Blockade on June 24, 1948.
    T009271 - Soviet Repatriation Mission was denied entry into Frankfurt, March 1, 1949.
    T009281 - Jerome Brentar started screening refugees for IRO on Sept. 1, 1948.
    T009283 - Edward O'Connor [Mark O'Connor's father] High Commissioner also denied IRO personnel counseled DPs to lie on their application forms.

    T009286 - Tolstoy states that one cannot generalize such specific statements to all IRO personnel.

    T009287 - Blatman questions Tolstoy on Jews on Vlasov's Army; discussion as to whether Zikoff was a Jew.

    T009293 - Tolstoy believes that "all Jews were ordered to be exterminated".
    T009299 - With respect to Vlasov, Hitler decided there would be no Russian Army [ROA], but that a phantom army should be given full propaganda value.

    T009316f - Discussion whether there was an ROA military or propaganda unit in Heuberg before December 1944.

    T009234f - Blatman turns to photos of nun/82, 83, 84.
    - ROA officer interviewing Red Army deserter near Murmansk.
    - 3 books: Un Deutscher Seite (1985), Strik-Strikfeldt Against Stalin and Hitler (London, 1970), Rosko General Vlasov, the Betrayal and Treachery (San Francisco, 1982).

    Nikolai Tolstoy; T009328 - 9228; 1987/11/05; Vol. 15
    [1987/11/05, Thu.; T009328, Vol. 15; Tolstoy]
    [Top] [1987/11/02] [1987/11/03] [1987/11/04] [1987/11/05] [Bottom]

    T009328-9 - MISSING
    T009331f - Book by George Fisher, Soviet Opposition to Stalin
    T009337f - After Stalingrad, many Osttruppen began defecting to the Red Army. Consequently, the Germans withdrew the ROA-supported units from the Eastern Front and deployed them on the Western Front. This caused a sharp "decline in morale among Vlasov's men", since they were no longer fighting Bolshevism.

    T009341 - Tav/261 = pp.58-59 of book by Katarina Andrea.
    - Tav262 = pp.200-201 of book by Wilfred(?) Strikfeldt(?)

    T009342f - Tolstoy protests reading excerpts from these books for the prosecution.
    T009347 - Vlasov received permission to establish 2-3 divisions only in Sept. 1944.
    - Blatman: "It follows that given this situation, the commander of the prisoner-of-war camp at Chelm could not send out troops to Vlasov's Army in the spring of 1944."
    - [W.Z. What troops? They were starving POWs.]

    T009349 - Tolstoy: With the Reich clearly crumbling into ruin, "individual commanders took individual decisions very often as they saw fit and from clearly pragmatic considerations."

    T009351 - Tolstoy: Use of the Osttruppen by German officers of the Wehrmacht "was concealed from the High Command which was obliged to comply, at least outwardly, with Hitler's directive."

    T009352f - Galician Division and Shandruk was completely separate from ROA and Vlasov.
    T009354 - First ROA Division was set up in Munzingen in Dec. 1944 and Second ROA Division was officially set up in Heuberg in Feb. 1945.

    T009362 - Tolstoy: "the Germans had considerable fear of the potential for a major uprising among the millions of Ostarbeiter within Germany" -- and consequently didn't want armed Vlasov troops within Germany proper.

    T009367 - Tolstoy: General Kurstring estimated that towards the end of 1944 there were 800,000 Osttruppen.
    - Tolstoy thinks that the majority of them came under the aegis of the ROA and a large fraction wore the ROA insignia.

    T009377 - Tolstoy notes that the character and testimony of Prof. Vladimir Petrov were allowed to be produced, which was not permitted in the case of Armand Hammer. This does not please Judge Levin.

    T009384 - Levin suggests Blatman shorten his cross-examination: "For the fewer days we have to keep this witness here in Israel better for everyone concerned for a variety of reasons."

    T009385f - Blatman turns to the subject of the Famine.
    - Peasants slaughtered much of the livestock rather than have it collectivized.

    T009386 - Dorner: "Is it really worth devoting cross-examination to this?"
    T009388 - Tolstoy: Mel Fainsod's book on the Famine has been superceded by Robert Conquest's, Harvest of Sorrow.

    T009389 - Blatman turns to the "last bullet" order of Stalin.
    T009390 - Sheftel: "amnesty law of 1955 was submitted into evidence, and in spite of this amnesty we know that Fedorenko was in fact hanged in spite of this amnesty."

    T009393f - Zinoviev 1924 letter.
    T009395f - Trawniki archives taken by the Red Army.
    T009398 - Blatman: "the only source in the world from which authentic documents on Nazi war criminals, involved in the Reinhardt Operation is the Soviet Union and Poland."
    - [W.Z. Although Tolstoy agrees, I don't see why there wouldn't be any documents in Germany , Israel, U.S. archives, etc.]

    T009399f - Sheftel re-direct examination of Tolstoy.
    - Tolstoy was 10 years old and very happy when Germany was defeated.
    - In 1942, he wrote: "Dear Hitler, I hate you, Love from Nikolai"
    - Association for a Free Russia
    - Trial and Error; Deschenes Commission

    T009404f - Tolstoy quotes at length from Trial and Error, where he emphasizes the war crimes and crimes against humanity of the Soviet Union.

    T009405 - "if the advocates of blind vengeance are indifferent to history" look at the quotation from the Bible: "Ye that touchest pitch, shall be defiled therewith."

    T009407 - Tolstoy feels that his submission had a positive effect on the Deschenes Commission.
    - Tolstoy is very sympathetic to the fate the Cossacks suffered in 1945 when repatriated, but some of his own ancestors were tortured and murdered by Cossacks.

    T009412 - Discussion of unfavourable reviews of Tolstoy's books.
    T009416 - Nun/89 = book review by John Erikson.
    - Nun/90 = book review by Foote.

    T009419 - Tolstoy says that he has been offered positions at Universities, but prefers to concentrate on writing his books.

    T009421 - Snarky exchange between Sheftel and Blatman about membership in Royal Historical Society.
    T009424 - Book by Richard Landwer on Galicia Division.
    T009426 - Repatriation of Cossacks -- British source says 12 and Olga Rogova says 700.
    - Blatman omitted the following sentence in Tolstoy's book suggesting that Rogova's estimate is too high.

    T009427 - The 40% repatriation refusal as stated by Soviet Commission is likely too low.
    T009428 - 2,031,000 people "voluntarily" returned to Mother Russia as quoted by Blatman is inaccurate since the table "makes no reference to whether these figures referred to include voluntary or involuntary repatriates. But is simply a statistical list of the numbers of people repatriated regardless of their wishes."

    T009431 - Tolstoy: "... I would say that the majority did not wish to return, how great a majority I would not like to say."

    T009432f - Fear of repatriation lingered for a long time after actual cessation of operations.
    T009434 - Tolstoy: "the fear as I found from personal experience can extend quite frequently up to the present day, but of course that is unrealistic in the present context." "I can't give a cutoff date." Important point was "withdrawal of Soviet Repatriation Mission from Frankfurt in 1949."
    - [W.Z. Halya's mother died in the late 1990s without admitting to Canadian Immigration authorities that she had changed her name to avoid repatriation. The fear stayed for the rest of her life.]

    T009436 - References to Edward O'Connor and Jerome Brentar.
    T009439 - ROA vs Galicia Division: "... considerable resentment and dispute between Ukrainian Nationalists and Great Russian Nationalists between these respective units."

    T009440f - All further questions are disallowed (re Heuberg, Vlasov Army, etc.)

    T009447f - Judges question Tolstoy.
    - Dorner asks re quote "pitch would sully one's hands" in Trial and Error.

    T009448 - **** END of Tolstoy evidence and of Vol. 15 ****

    [W.Z. Summary: In my opinion, Nikolai Tolstoy was very effective. During cross-examination the judges accorded him respect. During the cross-examination on Tuesday, this respect seemed to erode under personal attacks by Blatman. However, his refusal to testify on Wednesday unless assurances were given that these personal attacks would cease restored that respect.

    His insight into the fear of repatriation was extremely enlightening (and is of relevance to the present d/d issue in Canada). His testimony on Vlasov's Army and Soviet forgeries were convincing. He was very effective in supporting Mr. Demjanjuk's alibi re Heuberg.

    Finally, his philosophical answers associated with the Trial and Error pamphlet for the Deschenes Commission and his other books on repatriation placed him a rung above the prosecution.]

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